Humanism is the name given to the intellectualliterary, and scientific movement of the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, a movement which aimed at basing every branch of learning on the literature and culture of classical antiquity. Believing that a classical training alone could form a perfect man, the Humanists so called themselves in opposition to the Scholasticsand adopted the term humaniora the humanities as signifying the scholarship of the ancients. Though the interval between the classical period and their own days was regarded by the Humanists as barbarous and destructive alike of art and scienceHumanism like every other historical phenomenon was connected with the past. The use of Latin in the Liturgy of the Church had already prepared Europe for the humanistic movement.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning literally "good letters".
Those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most highly humanized. For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, and the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, and for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity".
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, and that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us.
He himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius one these reforms, for example, was that a prisoner was not to be treated as guilty before being tried.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, which, allied to reason, could and should enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law.
The designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantismalthough centered on human needs, interests, and abilities rather than the supernatural. The first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in They identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reasonethicsand social and economic justiceand they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making.
The coinage gained universal acceptance inwhen German historian and philologist Georg Voigt used humanism to describe Renaissance humanismthe movement that flourished in the Italian Renaissance to revive classical learning, a use which won wide acceptance among historians in many nations, especially Italy.
Inthe author of an anonymous article in a French Enlightenment periodical spoke of "The general love of humanity After the French Revolutionthe idea that human virtue could be created by human reason alone independently from traditional religious institutions, attributed by opponents of the Revolution to Enlightenment philosophes such as Rousseauwas violently attacked by influential religious and political conservativessuch as Edmund Burke and Joseph de Maistreas a deification or idolatry of humanity.
The Oxford English Dictionary records the use of the word "humanism" by an English clergyman in to indicate those who believe in the "mere humanity" as opposed to the divine nature of Christ, i.
Thoughts on " —49states: There has been a persistent confusion between the several uses of the terms: Nasadiya Suktaa passage in the Rig Vedacontains one of the first recorded assertions of agnosticism.
Zarathustra's philosophy in the Gathas lays out a conception of humankind as thinking beings, dignified with choice and agency according to the intellect which each receives from Ahura Mazda God in the form of supreme wisdom. The idea of Ahura Mazda as a non-intervening deistic god or Great Architect of the Universe was combined with a unique eschatology and ethical system which implied that each person is held morally responsible in the afterlife, for their choices they freely made in life.
Ancient Greece Main article: Ancient Greek philosophy 6th-century BCE pre-Socratic Greek philosophers Thales of Miletus and Xenophanes of Colophon were the first in the region to attempt to explain the world in terms of human reason rather than myth and tradition, thus can be said to be the first Greek humanists.
Thales questioned the notion of anthropomorphic gods and Xenophanes refused to recognise the gods of his time and reserved the divine for the principle of unity in the universe.
These Ionian Greeks were the first thinkers to assert that nature is available to be studied separately from the supernatural realm. Anaxagoras brought philosophy and the spirit of rational inquiry from Ionia to Athens. Periclesthe leader of Athens during the period of its greatest glory was an admirer of Anaxagoras.
Other influential pre-Socratics or rational philosophers include Protagoras like Anaxagoras a friend of Periclesknown for his famous dictum "man is the measure of all things" and Democrituswho proposed that matter was composed of atoms.
Little of the written work of these early philosophers survives and they are known mainly from fragments and quotations in other writers, principally Plato and Aristotle.Renaissance humanism was an intellectual movement in Europe of the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period.
The 19th-century German historian Georg Voigt (–91) identified Petrarch as the first Renaissance humanist.
Also known as Renaissance humanism, the historical program was so broadly and profoundly influential that it is one of the chief reasons why the Renaissance is viewed as a distinct historical period.
Indeed, though the word Renaissance is of more recent coinage, the fundamental idea of that period as one of renewal and reawakening is humanistic. Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The term Renaissance humanism is contemporary to that period — Renaissance (rinascimento, "rebirth") and "humanist". The period of time during which the European Renaissance fell was between the end of the Middle Ages (or medieval period) and the beginning of the Modern Age.
For some historians, the European Renaissance is considered as the dawn of the Early Modern Era. Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, a movement which aimed at basing every branch of learning on the literature and culture of classical antiquity..
Believing that a classical training alone could form a perfect man, the Humanists so called themselves in opposition to the Scholastics, and adopted the. Humanism is the term applied to the predominant ntellectual and literary currents of the period to The return to favor of the classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and individual expression.