Discrimination Inequality exists, even in societies without formal stratification Parsons, Inequality takes different forms and there is much theoretical debate regarding which grouping variables, such as gender or age, are important. Conversely, the radical perspective, a maximalist concept, is more concerned with outcome.
Policies and Procedures Introduction Variations in human resource management HRM policy and practices are discussed in the context of understanding why such differences exist within different organisations, and what the driving influences are behind any differences.
Definitions Human resource management HRM policies are continuing guidelines on the approach an organisation intends to adopt in managing its employees. They define the philosophies and values of the organisation on how people should be treated.
From these flow the principles upon which managers are expected to act when approaching HR matters. HR policies serve as reference points when employment practices are being developed, and when decisions are made about people.
HR policies are distinguished from procedures or practices, in that a policy provides generalised guidance on the approach adopted by the organisation, and therefore its employees, concerning various aspects of employment.
Procedures spell out exactly what action should be taken to ensure alignment with the policy. There are many policy areas and the values of organisations will vary with the type of business area and with the culture of the organisation.
The value concepts behind HR policies include: Equity - Treating employees fairly and justly. Consideration - Taking account of individual circumstances. Learning - A belief in the need to promote development. Performance - The management of performance by agreeing mutual expectations and giving feedback in their attainment.
Balance - Enabling a between work and life. Quality - Increasing satisfaction by making the working environment conducive to happy employees.
Working conditions - Providing a healthy and safe environment These values are proclaimed by many organisations in one form or another, but the extent to which they are practiced depends on the nature of the organisation Armstrong Performance How job performance and its relation to underlying HR policies vary is described by Torrington et al Job satisfaction has been seen as key to the link to performance.
The motivational theories which underpin this aspect of HR policy and practice are often based on the work of MaslowVroomHerzberg and McGregor The importance of work itself is identified by Hertzberg as how opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, autonomy, challenging tasks and development opportunities may all be motivational and this would affect HMR policies and practices of job design, empowerment, training and career development.
Maslow has described how social needs may be met by affiliation and this is likely to be facilitated by HR policies which incorporate teamwork.
Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation recognises that in the process of motivation the extent to which an individual feels he or she can achieve targets set will influence whether they feel they can try, so policies which enable individuals to agree targets are more likely result in employees attempting them.
Policies that promote responsibility and self-motivation are more likely to succeed and this is in accordance with McGregor's theory of motivation.
Policies which ensure that pay and benefits are comparable with, or greater than, competitors are likely to have a motivating influence according to Herzberg's theory. Harrison argues that there is much evidence of links between HR practices and organisational performance; particularly where there is 'bundling' of sets practices.
Findings suggested that where people are performing beyond minimal requirements, three conditions are necessary CIPD b.
This is described as the AMO model and the requirements are: A They have the ability to do so because they have the necessary knowledge and skills, including team working. M They are motivated to do so.
O They are given the opportunity to use their skills both in their jobs and in contributing to organisational success. To turn AMO into action requires policies and practices to support the model, and key findings were that HR policies and practices that build commitment are crucial in turning skills into action.
High levels of commitment and discretionary behaviour are needed to achieve above-average organisational performance. As an example Selfridges expresses it's 'Big Idea' in three goals: Selfridges regularly reports on performance related to each and this scorecard approach enables an explicit link to be made between individuals' goals and those of the organisation.
Best Practice Businesses undergoing change or those in unpredictable markets have different HRM strategies and from them flow differing policies and procedures.Diversity and its management in the age of globalization are covered in four research papers.
Family friendly organizations are discussed with a focus on the future. Managing the behavior of people in 21st century organizations is the subject of nine research papers.
Management tools in a diverse workforce should be used for giving education to all the employees about diversity and its issues which includes law and education (DeSouza ). Around the world, most of the places are made up of diverse cultures.
Nov 05, · Ethics is the code of moral conduct and will determine how well a diverse workforce is treated and accepted into the office. Policies should be written and reviewed in workshops and training. Today, ethics in the workplace can be managed through use of codes of ethics, codes of conduct, roles of ethicists and ethics committees, policies and procedures, procedures to resolve ethical dilemmas, ethics training, etc.
Winkler recently replaced the company's mandatory online ethics training, which required employees to read the code of ethics and certify that they had done so. Essay on Diversity in Management.
Diversity in Management Diversity in management, or lack thereof, is having the same mixture of women, blacks, and other minorities in management positions as there is in that local population.