Its agents, the Inquisitorscommand fear and respect in equal measure.
There were a large number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages through different diplomatic and political means. In the Kingdom of Aragona tribunal of the Papal Inquisition was established by the statute of Excommunicamus of Pope Gregory IXinduring the era of the Albigensian heresy, as a condition for peace with Aragon.
The Inquisition was ill-received by the Aragonese, which led to prohibitions against insults or attacks on it. Rome was particularly concerned about the 'heretical' influence of the Iberian peninsula's large Muslim and Jewish population on the Catholic. It pressed the kingdoms to accept the Papal Inquisition after Aragon.
Navarra conceded in the 13th century and Portugal by the end of the 14th, however its 'Roman Inquisition' was famously inactive. Castile refused steadily, trusting on its prominent position in Europe and its military power to keep the Pope's interventionism in check.
By the end of the Middle Ages, Englanddue to distance and voluntary compliance, and Castile future part of Spain due to resistance and power, were the only Western European kingdoms to successfully resist establishment of the Inquisition in their realms.
Medieval Inquisition in Aragon[ edit ] Although Raymond of Penyafort was not an inquisitor, as a canon lawyer and the king's advisor, James I of Aragonhad often consulted him on questions of law regarding the practices of the Inquisition in the king's domains.
With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the fifteenth century, it was almost forgotten although still there according to the law.
Regarding the living conditions of minorities, the kings of Aragon and other monarchies imposed some discriminatory taxation of religious minorities, so false conversions were a way of tax evasion.
In addition to said discriminatory legislation, Aragon had laws specifically targeted at protecting minorities. For example, crusades attacking Jewish or Muslim subjects of the King of Aragon while on their way to fight in the reconquest were punished with death by hanging.
Up to the 14th century, the census and weddings records show an absolute lack of concern with avoiding intermarriage or blood mixture so present in other areas.
Both the Roman Inquisition and neighbouring Christian powers showed discomfort with these two aspects of Aragonese law and lack of concern with ethnicity, but to little effect. High-ranking officials of Jewish religion were not as common as in Castile, but were not unheard of either.
Members of the episcopate were charged with surveillance of the faithful and punishment of transgressors, always under the direction of the king. During the Middle Ages, in Castile, little to no attention was paid to heresy by the Catholic ruling class, or by the population.
Jews and Muslims were tolerated and generally allowed to follow their traditional customs in domestic matters. The Castilian law is particularly difficult to summarize since due to the model of the free Royal Villas mayors and the population of border areas had the right to create their own fueros law that varied from one villa to the next.
In general, the Castilian model was parallel to the initial model of Islamic Spain. Non-Catholics were subject to discriminatory legislation regarding taxation and some other specific discriminatory legislation-such as prohibition of wearing silk or "flashy clothes"  - that varied from county to county, but were left alone besides that.
Forced conversion of minorities was against the law, and so was the belief in the existence of witchcraft, oracles or similar superstitions. In general, all "people from the book" were permitted to practice their own customs and religions as far as they did not attempt proselytizing on the Christian population.
Jews particularly had surprising freedoms and protections compared to other areas of Europe and were allowed to hold high public offices such as the counselor, treasurer or secretary for the crown.
The intellectual cooperation between religions was the norm in Castile. Some examples are the Toledo School of Translators from the 11th century. Jews and moriscos were allowed to hold high offices in the administration.
Even after the sudden increase in hostility towards other religions that the kingdom experienced after the 14th century crisis, which clearly worsened the living conditions of non-Catholics in Castile, it remained one of the most tolerant kingdoms in Europe.
A focuss of conflict was Castilian resistance to truly abandon the mozarabic riteand the refusal to grant Papal control over Reconquest land a request Aragon and Portugal conceded. Creation of the Spanish Inquisition[ edit ] There are several hypotheses of what prompted the creation of the tribunal after centuries of outstanding tolerance within the context of medieval Europe.
The truth is probably a combination of varieties of them. After invading inlarge areas of the Iberian Peninsula were ruled by Muslims untilwhen they were restricted to Granada, which fell in However, the Reconquista did not result in the total expulsion of Muslims from Spain, since they, along with Jews, were tolerated by the ruling Christian elite.
Large cities, especially SevilleValladolid and Barcelonahad significant Jewish populations centered in Juderiabut in the coming years the Muslims were increasingly subjugated by alienation and torture.
However, as historian Henry Kamen notes, the "so-called convivencia was always a relationship between unequals. Castile itself had an unofficial rabbi.Under the supreme council of the Spanish Inquisition were 14 local tribunals in Spain and several in the colonies; the tribunals in Mexico and Peru were particularly harsh.
The Spanish Inquisition spread into Sicily in , but efforts to set it .
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians. It started in 12th-century France to combat religious dissent, in particular the Cathars and the srmvision.com groups investigated later included the Spiritual Franciscans, the Hussites (followers of Jan Hus) and the Beguines.
The Spanish Inquisition calls up a scene of torture and religious persecution. Explore the Spanish Inquisition, from its origin to the trials to how it ended.
The Spanish Inquisition by Henry Kamen is a balanced overview of this sad part of Spanish History.
At plus pages the author shows the motivation behind the Spanish Inquisition and that this inquisition was just that, "Spanish.". Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre. Flamenco embodies a complex musical and cultural tradition. Although considered part of the culture of Spain in general, flamenco actually originates from one region—srmvision.comr, other areas, mainly Extremadura and Murcia, have contributed to the development of several flamenco musical forms, and a great number of renowned flamenco artists .
Sixtus agreed to recognize the independence of the Spanish Inquisition. This institution survived to the beginning of the 19th century, and was permanently suppressed by a decree on July 15, A third variety of the Inquisition was the Roman Inquisition.